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nike uk How much should plastic bags c

How much should plastic bags cost

When Irish officials resolved to charge a fee for plastic grocery bags, they didn’t use detailed economic calculations to determine the optimal number. They went for simple shock value what amount would make shoppers think twice before taking a disposable plastic bag to carry home, say, a loaf of bread already wrapped in plastic?

They settled on 21 cents in 2002. It worked. Plastic bag use plummeted by more than 90 per cent nike uk , and the amount of litter fell substantially. The fees collected by retailers went toward an environment fund that has reaped about $177 million for recycling and green education programs.

But by last year, officials noticed that consumers were reverting to “old, bad habits,” environment department spokesman Vincent Potter said. So in 2007, they increased the fee per bag to 34 cents. Again there was an immediate decline in plastic bag use and litter

Meanwhile, after months of wrangling with grocery retailers and the plastics industry, Toronto council last week set a modest five cent fee for grocery store plastic bags.

Is a nickel enough to drop the plastic habit?

Not likely, says the Toronto Environmental Alliance. “We don’t think it’s going to change a lot of behaviour,” says Katrina Miller, the alliance’s campaigns director. “People get used to the fee and will continue to pay it.”

If the five cent fee were the first step in a wider public education program leading to an eventual ban, there would be merit in the by law council passed on Wednesday, Miller says. “But this is where the program ends, not where it starts.”

No question, it’s a compromise, says councillor Glenn De Baeremaeker, who argued for a 10 cent rebate to shoppers who brought their own bags.

“I was prepared to duke it out in city council and have the fur fly,” he says. “We might have won the fight at council, but (we) would have had the entire industry opposed.

“We think we’ve done everything we can. We’ve maxed out.”

The city agreed to the five cent fee because it is already an industry standard, at least in Ontario.

“(It’s) known to retailers and they are comfortable with (it) and will hopefully cause less concern and panic,” De Baeremaeker, chair of the city’s public works and infrastructure committee, wrote in a follow up email.

Loblaw Companies Limited says its own research shows that a nickel a bag the fee that No Frills stores in Ontario started charging in 1987 does change consumer behaviour and has led to a 55 per cent reduction in bag use. Offering a rebate to shoppers who bring their own bags is less effective, says the company only a 4 per cent reduction.

By promoting a fee for bags, the city and its citizens are going down the wrong road, spokespersons for the plastics industry predicted direly last week. In a province already rocked by job losses, as many as 10,000 Ontario jobs in the plastic bag and film manufacturing industry may be in jeopardy because of council’s decision, according to the Environment and Plastics Industry Council.

Still, some municipal nike uk ities in North America have chosen a more dramatic approach: an outright ban.

San Francisco’s ban on non biodegradable plastic bags from supermarket and large drug stores has been in place for a year. The city had planned to charge a 17 cent fee, but instead reached a voluntary agreement with grocery stores to reduce plastic bag distribution by 10 million out of the more than 150 million used in 2006. The stores, however, failed to provide verifiable evidence that bag use was declining. The city used a back of the envelope calculation to arrive at a 17 cent fee, including costs to the city in clean up, contamination to compost the city collected. Later, a bill was passed in the California legislature that banned municipalities nike uk from charging a fee for plastic bags. “Clearly it was targeting us,” says Mark Westlund, spokesman for the San Francisco environment department. “We had no option. The stores were not achieving reduction. Now, as far as we can tell, the ban has gone remarkably well.”

Small plastic litter of all kinds dropped by 50 per cent in the last year. Down time has also fallen in San Francisco’s recycling plant, and millions in savings have been realized since fewer plastic bags are getting caught in the gears of the sorting machinery, forcing a shutdown and manual retrieval.

Seattle’s efforts to reduce grocery store bags plastic and paper by charging a 20 cent fee have come up against an effective lobby group funded by the American Chemistry Council and 7 Eleven, Inc.

The fee was approved in July, but after The Coalition to Stop the Seattle Bag Tax got 20,000 signatures on a petition to repeal the ordinance, the matter will be decided in a referendum next year.

“At a time when economic uncertainty and the high price of food and fuel are burdening us all, we don’t need a tax on grocery bags,” a coalition statement read. The distinction of being the first community in North America to ban retailer nike uk s from giving away single use plastic bags belongs to a tiny town in northern Manitoba. In 2005, the chief administrative officer for Leaf Rapids noticed that the municipality approximate population 600 was spending $5,000 a year to clean up plastic bags in town and in the trees of the nearby forests.

The town introduced a three cent levy in 2006, “But it was too easy,” says mayor Ed Charrier. “Nobody thinks about three cents or five cents.” On March 22, 2007, council took the bolder step of a ban.

They were so keen to be the first to ban plastic bags, the town leaders met at midnight. The ban went into effect just 10 days later.

It’s worked, Charrier says. Now it’s rare to see a plastic bag in Leaf Rapids. He was feeling pleased about the change until he went to the town dump.

“I could not believe what I was seeing. Bags, not from our town, but from Wal Mart and Giant Tiger in Thompson.”

Shoppers from Leaf Rapids are now bringing plastic bags in from the larger city, some 200 kilometres away. “So I have Thompson’s garbage in my town,” Charrier says. “I’ve asked the mayor of Thompson to look at a bag ban, because it’s affecting the entire north.”

In Ireland, it’s been reported that shoppers are buying more plastic bags to line garbage bins and pick up after pets since the fee was introduced. Environmentalists make the point that a tax or ban is not enough; consumption of plastic has to be reduced.

In Toronto, plastic bags make up only a tiny proportion of landfill less than 1 per cent but Charrier says a plastic bag ban across Canada would make a difference.

nike uk How much should I tipThe d

How much should I tip

The doorman is there to welcome you each time you enter the hotel. He will usually help you remove your bags from your vehicle, and will pass them on to a bellman. He is often the one to call a taxi for you, too.

Customary tip: $2 for hailing a cab; $1 per piece for handling luggage. attendants park and retrieve your car. They may assist with your bags, helping the bellman load and unload the car. They can also help with special requests. For example, if you know you’ll need your car again very shortly after parking, you can ask the valet to keep the car close, or “stage” it, so it’s easy to retrieve upon your return. Bellmen will store your luggage if you arrive before your room is ready, or if you must check out of your room before you are ready to leave the property. Bellmen take your bags upon arrival, wait as you check in and escort you to your room. Great bellmen will check your room before having you enter, give you a room orientation (explaining where light switches are, how the remote control functions, how the phones work, etc.), check for your satisfaction and grab anything else that you might immediately need, such as ice or an extra pillow. Bellmen can often be found making room deliveries throughout your stay. Ever wonder how that package you were expecting magically appeared on the desk in your room? The bellman probably brought it. If they’re really good, they’ll uncover your food and present it nicely on the table. It’s common for hotels to tack on a “service charge” or gratuity for room service in advance, so check your bill before tipping. After all, you expect a clean room with fresh towels to be included in your room rate. But when you stay for a while, you may get extra services. The housekeepers may take the time to tidy your personal items for you, or you may run them ragged with extra requ nike uk ests for coffee or pillows during your stay. Some hotels service your room more than once a day, and some rooms, especially at boutique hotels, are difficult and time consuming to service. Under any of these circumstances, you should probably tip your housekeeper. These guys take care of practically anything you might need: dinner reservations, tour bookings, transportation, flight check in, dog walking the list is endless. I try to stick with one concierge throughout my stay, and then take care of him with one lump sum at the end of my trip. Many people just tip per service or request, however. Expectations are usually higher at luxury properties and in large cities, and everything is different abroad, so always check local guidebooks before you go.

If you don’t pay, you don’t play

People choose not to tip for many reasons. They may be traveling on a budget, or they may feel that certain services should be covered by the room rate, or they object to subsidizing wages when the government should really increase the minimum wage. These are valid reasons, but here’s the deal: That bellman doesn’t care about your principles; he cares about paying his bills. If you have no intention of tipping employees who are in tipped positions, do not use their services. And for goodness sake, don’t ask the bellman if you can borrow his cart while you go it alone; he can’t make money from paying guests if you make off with the tools of his trade!

When in doubt, ask

You’re not the first person to be confused about tipping expectations, so do nike uk n’t be afraid to ask an employee if you’re unsure about a situation. The front desk agent is usually a good person to ask about tipping conventions. Employees are often trained in the exact wording to use when a guest asks about tips, so they won’t feel the least bit uncomfortable assisting you.

More is always OK

It is always better to overtip than undertip. Rarely will you make someone uncomfortable by overtipping, and if you do, they’ll let you know. Tipping is supposed to be a heartfelt expression of gratitude, and it should make both the guest and the employee feel good. Reader Janet Williams sums it up beautifully: “Unless the service is absolutely horrible, I always leave a tip and I usually lean towards overtipping. I always like to let people nike uk know that I am appreciative of their efforts to provide good service and to make me comfortable and happy in their establishment.”

I hope some of these suggestio nike uk ns help make tipping easier. Use them as a guide, but remember to do what makes you feel comfortable. After all, no one needs more stress when traveling!

Editor’s note: We are delighted to announce the birth of Amy’s second child, a big, healthy boy, born January 5. Mother and child are doing fine, though Amy is a very sleepy, as the baby has his days and nights mixed up!

nike uk How Much Sand Is Needed Per Ba

How Much Sand Is Needed Per Bag of Cem nike uk ent

Browse Articles Videos By CategoryFood DrinkHobbies, Games ToysWhile people commonly consider sidewalks to be composed of cement, they are actually made of concrete. Concrete is a combination of aggregates and paste. The aggregates are usually sand, gravel or pulverized stone, and the paste is made of water and cement. Once the components of concrete are mixed, the cement and water solidify and bind the aggregates to form a rock solid material. The hardening process persists over time, gradually getting harder every year as the concrete mixture continues to fortify. Each aggregate particle is graded by size, generally ranging from 1/4 inch up to but not to exceed 2 inches. As the maximum course aggregate size is decreased, the cement content must be increased so that the necessary amount of cement paste can appropriately bind the aggregate elements. That being said, the amount o nike uk f wet sand is not affected by aggregate size. The proportion i nike uk s typically 2 1/2 parts wet sand for every 94 lbs. of cement, with 1 part equa nike uk ling 1 cubic foot of material.